To tackle the high unemployment rates during the Depression, President Roosevelt created a number of jobs programs. Many of these jobs programs were effective in giving millions of men work while performing tasks to improve the country.

The Project Works Administration
The PWA was the first major program created to attack unemployment. Roosevelt authorized the PWA on June 6, 1933. Headed by Harold Ickes, it was intended to provide people with money to spend on industrial products. The government had hoped that the PWA would stimulate the construction industry and put people back to work. This program spent $6 billion dollars in just 6 years building ports, dams, and sewer systems. It provided jobs for a few men, but it did not significantly reduce unemployment. When the PWA did not significantly turn the economy around, Roosvelt began starting other programs.

The Civil Works Administration
The CWA was created by the New Deal to create temporary manual labor jobs for the millions of unemployed men in America. Presented on November 8, 1933, it was headed by Harry Hopkins. In just the first month it put 2,600,000 men to work. Before its end on March 31, 1934, it successfully built or repaired 250,000 miles of road, 40,000 schools, 150,000 outhouses, and 3,700 playgrounds. It spent a total of $200 million, but it gave jobs to 4 million people. Roosevelt ended it because he did not want to run a budget deficit.

The Civilian Conservations Corps
The CCC was a public work relief program for physically fit, unemployed and unmarried men that were 18-26 years of age. This program ran from 1933 to 1942. Enlistment for the CCC lasted up to 6 months, but many men reenlisted. The goal of the CCC was to employ young men while battling erosion. Men lived in wilderness camps and worked in the parks and forestry planting saplings, restocking depleted streams, and restoring battlefields. Roosevelt's "Tree Army" employed 2 and a half million men, but failed to make a large dent in unemployment because it excluded women and had rigid requirements to enroll. Payment was $30 a month with mandatory checks sent to families back home. There were camps in all states, and minorities could join as well. Although black and white camps were segregated, a total of 250,000 African Americans enrolled. Also, many people believed that the CCC was responsible for a 55% drop in crimes committed by young men.
Throughout the years, Roosevelt's Tree Army built more than 3470 fire towers, 97000 miles of road, and planted 3 billion trees. More than 84 million acres of land received drainage systems and disease and insect control. Forests were improved by reforestation and many campgrounds were built. The CCC may not have drastically changed the unemployment rates, but it did help those that enrolled and it certainly helped America's wilderness.
Many people argued that the WPA was inefficient.  Some people would joke that it stood for "We Piddle Along."  Work crews would be criticized for spending days "moving leaf piles from one side of the street to the other." It spent 2.2 billion dollars a year and only employed 25% of jobless men.
Many people argued that the WPA was inefficient. Some people would joke that it stood for "We Piddle Along." Work crews would be criticized for spending days "moving leaf piles from one side of the street to the other." It spent 2.2 billion dollars a year and only employed 25% of jobless men.

The Works Progress Administration
The WPA was one of the largest and most important New Deal jobs program. Also headed by Harry Hopkins, it was established in January of 1935. It provided work for the typical unskilled American worker, but the tasks that the WPA performed were labor intensive and inefficient. The WPA was mostly made up of men, but about 14% were women by 1938. In 5 years, it built or repaired 2500 hospitals, 5900 schools, 1000 airport fields, and 13000 playgrounds, bridges, and parks. Workers cleaned slums, revived forests, and provided electrical power to rural and farm homes.

Much of the WPA's spending went to cultural programs. The National Youth Administration (held under the WPA) provided work for a million students. The WPA provided work for creative people such as artists or actors. It successfully employed 40,000 artists. These creative people began to receive more jobs thanks to the WPA.

The WPA ended on June 30, 1943 as a result of low unemployment because of WWII. Before its end, this administration had succeeded in providing almost 8 million jobs to the unemployed.

All of the Jobs programs made a dent in America's unemployment rates and contributed to helping the economy. These programs were brilliant because most allowed Americans to earn money while helping repair the economy and saving the earth. Many people may say that these programs were futile, but in reality they did help America begin to climb out of the depression, and survive along the way.